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Classical Theories of Leadership

Classical Theories of Leadership

Some psychology industry experts believe that leaders are born, while others feel management is a skill that another person can study. The study of the space of management concludes that there are 4 essential and classical theories of management. The theories include the attributes and attributes of leaders and how leaders should behave.

Trait Theories

Trait theories include the features that good leaders have. This principle was launched and investigated by researchers this sort of as Stogdill in 1948 and Mann in 1959. Early exploration states that leaders have attributes these kinds of as assertiveness, the ability to encourage other folks and intelligence, which helps make them innate and wonderful leaders. Whilst early investigate efforts focused on the qualities and traits of leaders, other scientists discovered that there wasn’t any correlation in between the traits and attributes of leaders that ended up various from followers.

Behavior Theories

By the 1960s, researchers started focusing their investigate endeavours on the behaviors of leaders. By 1968, the analysis led to the development of the Blake and Mouton’s Managerial Grid. The grid groups function designs together to develop four key doing the job models: “Worry for Responsibilities, Fears for Persons, Directive Leadership and Participative Management.” These classes explain how leaders perform and interact with followers to guide the followers to completing the jobs at hand.

Contingency Theories

Contingency theories focus on how leaders run dependent on which scenario they obtain by themselves. For illustration, a leader might arise in a disaster but act differently as a chief in a day-to-day circumstance. Contingency theories state that the behaviors and attributes of leaders change based on the condition.

Transformation Theories

Transformational theories examine how leaders react in a transactional predicament as opposed to a transformational problem. A transaction chief acts in a specified way as a tradeoff for a reward-he acts in a compact photo look at alternatively than a significant photo just one. For case in point, a transactional leader could determine the benefits of a enterprise reaching a certain purpose. The leader then presents staff praise in trade for the employee carrying out jobs to attain the meant end result. A transformational leader on the other hand acts from a large image viewpoint. A transformation leader understands how all of the actions of the followers or workforce assist the enterprise achieve a widespread objective. Not only does a transformational leader have an understanding of the aim from a huge picture check out, but the chief also educates the followers or personnel on the massive photograph advantages that every single little endeavor accomplishes and motivates the followers in this way.


Other theorists say that with the right identity-a charismatic a single-a chief can inspire followers to do just about everything. Folks are likely to have a human mother nature of wanting to aid, get the job done with or abide by the orders of men and women they like. Proof of this idea may perhaps perform our very best in cult and political leaders who can encourage their followers to act as the leaders say.